The Spreading of the Ancient Chinese Four Great Inventions to the West
（Learn to spread China and Chinese cuIture in EngIish）
Papermaking, printing, gunpowder and compass, the four great inventions representing the splendid achievements of the ancient Chinese culture, are important contributions made by the Chinese nations to the whole world. They have exercised a great deal of impact on the development of world civilization. With regard to the value and role of the Chinese culture in the development history of human civilization, the four great inventions, everlasting monuments in human history,embody a concentrated reflection of the wisdom and creativity of the Chinese nation.
Of the four great inventions, papermaking was the first to be introduced to the west. During the Tang Dynasty, owing to convenient transportation and extensive trade contacts ，many of the scientific achievement of China gradually spread to Europe via India and Arab countries and eventually to Europe. By the twelfth century,papermaking indusry the first of its kind in the Old Continent, began to appear in Spain. In 1276, the first paper mill was born in Italy. From then on, Italy witnessed a vigorous development of its papermaking industry and soon became an important paper supply base for Europe. By the end of fourteenth centuy, paper could be made in Italy, France, Spain and Southern Germany, and gradually became an important writing material in Europe. From the fifteenth century onwards,papermaking technique began to spread from Germany to other parts of Europe including Poland, Austria,England, Russia, Denmark and Norway, and paper was made by hand with Chinese equipment and technology. In the sixteenth century, papermaking technique was taken to America as a result of the colonial movement. In 1868, paper mills emerged in Melbourne in Australia. Up to then, China’s papermaking technology was applied in every corner of the earth.