熊熊生活小知识 分享 古代四大发明是谁传播到西方(中国四大发明向西方传播贡献最大的是)

古代四大发明是谁传播到西方(中国四大发明向西方传播贡献最大的是)

  The Spreading of the Ancient Chinese Four Great Inventions to the West

  (Learn to spread China and Chinese cuIture in EngIish)

古代四大发明是谁传播到西方(中国四大发明向西方传播贡献最大的是)插图古代四大发明是谁传播到西方(中国四大发明向西方传播贡献最大的是)插图1古代四大发明是谁传播到西方(中国四大发明向西方传播贡献最大的是)插图2古代四大发明是谁传播到西方(中国四大发明向西方传播贡献最大的是)插图3古代四大发明是谁传播到西方(中国四大发明向西方传播贡献最大的是)插图4

  Papermaking, printing, gunpowder and compass, the four great inventions representing the splendid achievements of the ancient Chinese culture, are important contributions made by the Chinese nations to the whole world. They have exercised a great deal of impact on the development of world civilization. With regard to the value and role of the Chinese culture in the development history of human civilization, the four great inventions, everlasting monuments in human history,embody a concentrated reflection of the wisdom and creativity of the Chinese nation.

  造纸术、印刷术、火药和指南针是代表中国古代文化辉煌成就的四大发明,是中华民族对世界的重要贡献。他们对世界文明的发展产生了巨大的影响。就中华文化在人类文明发展史上的价值和作用而言,四大发明是人类历史上的不朽丰碑,集中体现了中华民族的智慧和创造力。

  Of the four great inventions, papermaking was the first to be introduced to the west. During the Tang Dynasty, owing to convenient transportation and extensive trade contacts ,many of the scientific achievement of China gradually spread to Europe via India and Arab countries and eventually to Europe. By the twelfth century,papermaking indusry the first of its kind in the Old Continent, began to appear in Spain. In 1276, the first paper mill was born in Italy. From then on, Italy witnessed a vigorous development of its papermaking industry and soon became an important paper supply base for Europe. By the end of fourteenth centuy, paper could be made in Italy, France, Spain and Southern Germany, and gradually became an important writing material in Europe. From the fifteenth century onwards,papermaking technique began to spread from Germany to other parts of Europe including Poland, Austria,England, Russia, Denmark and Norway, and paper was made by hand with Chinese equipment and technology. In the sixteenth century, papermaking technique was taken to America as a result of the colonial movement. In 1868, paper mills emerged in Melbourne in Australia. Up to then, China’s papermaking technology was applied in every corner of the earth.

  在四大发明中,造纸术是第一个被引进西方的。唐代,由于交通便利,贸易往来广泛,中国的许多科学成果逐渐通过印度和阿拉伯国家传播到欧洲,并最终传播到欧洲。到了12世纪,造纸工业开始在西班牙出现,这是旧大陆上第一个造纸工业。1276年,第一家造纸厂在意大利诞生。从那时起,意大利的造纸工业蓬勃发展,并很快成为欧洲重要的纸张供应基地。到十四世纪末,纸可以在意大利、法国、西班牙和德国南部制造,并逐渐成为欧洲重要的书写材料。从15世纪起,造纸技术开始从德国传播到欧洲其他地区,包括波兰、奥地利、英国、俄罗斯、丹麦和挪威,纸是用中国的设备和技术手工制造的。16世纪,由于殖民运动,造纸技术被带到了美国。1868年,阿斯特拉利亚的墨尔本出现了造纸厂。到那时为止,中国的造纸技术已应用于世界的每一个角落。

  声明:文中的英文取材于孙立新主编、中国海洋大学出版社出版的《中国文化要览》。著作权属于原,本资料室借用相关英文材料,旨在促进中国文化的宣传和普及。如有侵权,联系删除。

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